scalpel n : a thin straight surgical knife used in dissection and surgery
A scalpel is a small but extremely sharp knife used for surgery, anatomical dissection, and various arts and crafts. Scalpels may be disposable or re-usable. Re-usable scalpels can have attached, resharpenable blades or, more commonly, non-attached, replaceable blades. Disposable scalpels usually have a plastic handle with an extensible blade (like a utility knife) and are used once, then the entire instrument discarded.
Scalpel blades are usually of hardened and tempered steel. Medical blades are made of high carbon steel, while craft blades are made of stainless steel, but titanium, ceramic, diamond and even obsidian are not unknown. For example, when performing surgery under MRI guidance, metallic blades are unusable (the steel blades would be drawn to the magnets) or may cause image artifacts. Alternatives to scalpels in surgical applications include electrocautery and lasers.
Surgical scalpelsSurgical scalpels consist of two parts, a blade and a handle. The handles are reusable, with the blades being replaceable. In medical applications, each blade is only used once, (even if just for a single, small cut). Medical scalpel handles come in two basic types. The first is a flat handle used in the #3 and #4 handles. The #7 handle is more like a long writing pen, rounded at the front and flat at the back. A #4 handle is larger than a #3, and while some blades fit both others are too large or small and can only fit one or the other. The following table of blades is incomplete and some blades listed may work with handles not specified here.
Gripping a medical scalpel
- Also called the "dinner knife" grip. The handle is held with
the second through fourth fingers and secured along the base of the
thumb, with the index finger extended along the top rear of the
blade and the thumb along the side of the handle. This grip is best
for initial incisions and larger cuts.
- Best used for more precise cuts with smaller blades (e.g. #15) and the #7 handle. The scalpel is held with the tips of the first and second fingers and the tip of the thumb with the handle resting on the "anatomical snuff box," at the fleshy base of the index finger and thumb. Care should be taken not to allow the handle to rest too far along the index finger as this promotes an unstable grip and cramped fingers. This is widely considered the non standard grip by the medical professionals, despite its more practical usage.
Safety ScalpelsIn the last decade, a rising awareness of the dangers of sharps in a medical environment has led to the development of various methods of protecting healthcare workers from accidental cuts and puncture wounds. According to the CDC (the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) as many as 1,000 people each day are subject to accidental needle sticks and lacerations while providing medical care http://www.cdc.gov/sharpssafety/. Companies like Jai Surgicals,Bard-Parker and Shippert Medical Technologies offer lines of retractible-blade scalpels which protect users by covering the blade when not in use. Some such scalpels are disposable and others feature replaceable blades on re-usable metal handles.
Graphic design and arts and crafts blades
Graphical and model-making scalpels tend to have round handles, with textured grips (either knurled metal or soft plastic). These are often called by the name of the most well-known manufacturer of graphic arts blades, X-Acto knives. The blade is usually flat and straight, allowing it to be run easily against a straightedge to produce straight cuts.
There are many kinds of graphic arts blades, the most common around the graphic design studio is the #11 blade which is very similar to a #11 surgical blade (q.v.). Other blade shapes are used for wood carving, cutting leather and heavy fabric, etc.
LancetA lancet is similar to a scalpel but with a double-edged blade.
Ancient Egyptians made incisions for embalming with scalpels of sharpened Obsidian and it is even used in modern times. Indian Ayurveda medicine mentions the use of sharp bamboo splinters.
scalpel in Czech: Skalpel
scalpel in Danish: Skalpel
scalpel in German: Skalpell
scalpel in Esperanto: Skalpelo
scalpel in Spanish: Escalpelo
scalpel in French: Scalpel
scalpel in Hungarian: Szike
scalpel in Italian: Bisturi
scalpel in Japanese: メス (刃物)
scalpel in Dutch: Scalpel
scalpel in Norwegian: Skalpell
scalpel in Pampanga: Bisturí
scalpel in Polish: Skalpel
scalpel in Portuguese: Bisturi
scalpel in Russian: Скальпель
scalpel in Slovak: Skalpel
scalpel in Serbian: Skalpel
scalpel in Finnish: Skalpelli
scalpel in Swedish: Skalpell
scalpel in Turkish: Neşter
scalpel in Chinese: 手术刀